University Federico II
of Naples, Italy
European Chemistry
Thematic Network
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Rock weathering

Woman's head in stone, II century AD
Seville, Spain - Archaeological Provincial Museum
Columns from the temple of Augustus
Pula, Croatia

Natural rocks, as well as stone artifacts of artistic, historical and cultural value, undergo degradation when exposed to the action of various environmental factors (wind, freeze/thaw and hot/cold cycles, acid rains, chemical pollutants, and so on). Deep and quite often irreversible deterioration phenomena occur
Roman arc in Medinaceli, Spain
Stone statues in Batalha monastery, Portugal
leading to erosion, disintegration, chemical transformations and alteration of the shape and structure of objects. Some examples are shown in the figures; more examples are found here.

The behavior of stone materials when exposed to environmental degradation factors mainly depends on their: